Let us look at the history of Berlin Wall and its demolition in 1989, which is marked as the greatest and historic event for German people.
Germany was defeated by Allied powers in World War 2 that resulted in nation division, including their capital city, Berlin. The history of sanctions and bankruptcy which was imposed in World War I was again repeating with the Germans.
Division of Germany
Germany was soon divided into 4 parts soon after World War II and these parts were under the control and administered by United States, Great Britain, France, and Soviet Union. Eastern side of the Germany was under the control of Soviet Union. Since, Berlin was the capital city of Germany during World War 2, it was also divided the same i.e. into 4 different areas and these areas were under the control of these 4 Nations. Berlin was located in the Eastern side, which was already under the Soviet Union.
The whole system and governance were divided into 2 parts that was between Capitalism and Communism. US, Great Britain and France followed capitalism governance and Soviet Union followed communism ideology. The whole issue of Berlin Wall started on 23 May 1949 when USA, France and Great Britain merged their occupied area to form a single state and declared it as an independent country known as Federal Republic of Germany (popularly known as West Germany). They established two capitals of the country, Bonn and Berlin. Bonn was located inside West Germany and Berlin on Eastern side of the country.
However, there was commutation of people between these two countries. United States started provoking the people of Eastern side against Soviet Union and found it very offensive against them. Soviet Union declared eastern side as independent nation on 7 October 1949 and named it as German Democratic Republic popularly came to known as East Germany. Soviet officials banned West German people to enter in East Germany.
Since, Berlin was surrounded by East Germany from every corner, there was no land link between their main land, West Germany. USA airlifted their people from Berlin and this incident is commonly known as Berlin Airlift or Berlin Blockade. However, Soviets embedded ban on the entry of West German people, but they did not occupied West Berlin, which means that particular empty area was still under Americans and was their capital.
There was a little bit of problem in East Germany. Most of the German industries and businesses were setup in Western side and East Germany was fully dependent on West Germany for its employment. Capitalism was being followed in West Germany and that is why their lifestyle and growth rate was far better than the communist East Germany.
There was no any kind of ban on the people of East Germany to enter Western side. Many people from East Germany used to go to West Germany in search of job or work, however they never returned to East Germany thereafter. The population of East Germany was declined by 30 percent from 1949 to 1961 and it was a major concern for Soviet officials.
By the order of the then premier of Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev; East Germany government made a wall with wooden logs and steel wires on the night of 12-13 August 1961 to separate the two nations. However, the wall was constructed to separate the two countries, but West Berlin was still under East Germany.
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To overcome with this problem, a separate wall was constructed on all sides of West Berlin whose total length was 155km to separate West Berlin from East Berlin and this led to a creation of Berlin Wall. There were 3 checkpoints on the wall namely Alpha, Bravo and Charlie for the movement of German people.
Later, the wall was reconstructed by brick and concrete, and the height was increased up to 3.6 meters. Land mines, Machine guns were installed on the wall, and later it became the Highly Militarized Border in the World. It was the part of Iron Curtain that separated the nations following capitalism and communism countries. Many people tried to cross this wall illegally but at the same time, they were killed. Nearly 170 people died due to illegal crossing of the border.
Fall of Communism Governance
This illegal crossing of Berlin Wall may have resulted in another World War, because in October 1961, when United Nation chief officer En Lightener tried to cross the wall illegally and both the armies were standing against each other facing face to face for at least 15 hours. However, this issue was resolved hours later after a meeting was held between both national officials.
During late 1980’s, there was rise in independence revolutions in Soviet Union which led in weakening of the government. Soviet Union made a resolution that if there is any kind of problem in East Germany, they will not send their military for any kind of help. In early 1989, when people started protesting against the soviet rule, Soviet Union did the same by not sending any help to the country. This led to the fall of East Germany government.
Demolition in 1989
On 9 November 1989, East Germany and West Germany government decided to demolish the wall and to make this as a massive headline on media channels, a live press conference was held. East Germany government decided to establish VISA for the migration of people between two countries.
However, during the conference, one of their officials, Gunter Schabowski made a huge mistake when one of the journalists asked him about issuing VISA and in reply, he did not say anything about VISA related issue. Soon after nearly, 4 million people gathered at Berlin Wall and started to demolish the wall. This was a beginning of the end of Soviet rule and communism governance.
The Brandenburg Gate, a few meters from the Berlin Wall, was opened on 22 December 1989. The demolition of the Wall officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in November 1991. The “fall of the Berlin Wall” paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990.